Friday, 14 September 2012

P5/P6 Science

Skills and Processes Required at P5 Level
• Observing
• Comparing
• Classifying
• Using apparatus and equipment
• Communicating
• Inferring
• Predicting
• Analysing
• Generating possibilities
• Formulating hypothesis

• Creative Problem Solving
• Decision Making
• Investigation

Process Skills
Observing - Using our senses to gather information about objects/events. This also includes the use of instruments to extend the range of our senses

Comparing - Identifying similarities and differences between 2 or more objects, concepts or processes

Classifying - Grouping objects or events based on common characteristics

Using apparatus & equipment - Knowing the functions and limitations of various apparatus and developing the ability to select and handle them appropriately for various tasks

Inferring - Interpreting or explaining observation or pieces of data or information

Analysing - Identifying the parts of objects, information or processes, and the patterns and relationships between these parts

Predicting - Assessing the likelihood of an outcome based on prior knowledge of how things usually turn out 

Generating possibilities - Exploring all the alternatives, possibilities and choices beyond the obvious or preferred one

Evaluating - assessing the reasonableness, accuracy and quality of information, processes or ideas and the quality and feasibility of objects

Formulating hypothesis - Making a general explanation for a related set of observations or events (an extension of inferring)

Components of Lessons
1) Theory – Concept teaching
2) Hands-on : Practical Sessions in the science laboratory
3) Topical notes
4) Topical Supplementary Worksheets (comprises of MCQ and Open-Ended Questions)
5) Misconception Worksheets



  • state the composition of the Solar System.
    • The Sun, the Earth, the Moon and other planets (names and positions of these other planets are not required).
  • show an awareness that the Earth�s position from the Sun is one of the major factors contributing to Earth�s ability to support life.
    • A combination of factors, like the Earth�s atmosphere and its position from the Sun, help to maintain the right environment on Earth to support life.
  • recognise that the Sun is a star that gives out light.
  • recognise that the Moon and planets in the Solar System do not give out light but are seen by reflected light.
  • show an awareness that there is regularity in the movements of the Earth and the Moon.
    • Use models to show that the Moon takes about 28 days to go around the Earth and relate the phases of the Moon to this movement.
    • Relate the length of a day to the rotation of the Earth about its axis and the length of a year to the movement of the Earth around the Sun.
  • list some uses of man-made satellites.
    • For example: communication, space exploration and observations of weather patterns.
  • show an understanding that a cell is a single unit of life.
    • Examples of single cell organisms: bacteria, yeast, paramecium.
  • identify the different parts of a plant cell and relate the parts to the functions:
    • cell wall
    • cell membrane
    • cytoplasm
    • nucleus
    • chloroplasts
      • Examine plant cells under the microscope. Use prepared slides of plant cells or mount onion epidermal / Elodea on slides.
  • identify the different parts of an animal cell and relate the parts to the functions:
    • cell membrane
    • cytoplasm
    • nucleus
      • Examine animal cells under the microscope. Use prepared slides of animal cells or mount cheek cells on slides.
  • show an understanding that a cell divides to produce new cells and that this division is necessary for an organism to grow.
    • Observe the budding of yeast under the microscope. Details of cell division are not required.
  • show an understanding that living things reproduce to ensure continuity of their kind and that many characteristics of an organism are passed on from parents to offspring.
    • Give examples of genetic traits such as:
      • tongue rolling
      • attached / detached ear lobes
  • investigate and compare the various ways in which plants reproduce, i.e. by spores, seeds, and from other plant parts such as underground stems, suckers and leaves.
    • Pupils do not have to distinguish between different types of underground stems.
  • name the following processes in the sexual reproduction of flowering plants: pollination, fertilisation (seed production), seed dispersal and germination.
    • Pupils are not expected to give detailed descriptions of the processes but should know the sequence of events.
  • recognise the similarity in terms of fertilisation in the sexual reproduction of flowering plants and animals.
    • Pupils need to recognise that in many animals, including humans, females produce eggs and males produce sperm. In flowering plants, the egg and male gametes are produced in the flowers. When an egg and a male gamete fuse, a new individual is formed.
    • Detailed knowledge of the human reproductive system is not required. But pupils need to know that the ovaries produce eggs, the testes produce sperms and the fertilised egg develops in the womb.


  • identify a force as a push or a pull.
  • list some simple machines.
    • lever, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, gears.
  • manipulate these simple machines to determine their characteristics and uses.
    • Pupils are to develop concepts and understanding through manipulation and play.
    • They are not expected to memorise these characteristics but ought to develop an understanding that each one makes work easier to do by:
      • providing some trade-off between the force applied and the distance over which the force is applied
      • changing the direction of the applied force
      • changing the speed and/or direction of rotation
    • Introduce the idea that examples of levers can be found in the interaction of the skeletal and muscular systems. The muscles provide the forces for the movement of the bones. One such example can be found in the arm.


  • recognise that an electric circuit consisting of a power source and other circuit components forms an electrical system.
    • Components of electric circuits are: dry cells, wires, bulbs, switches.
  • show an understanding that a current can only flow through a closed circuit.
    • Pupils can demonstrate understanding by the following means:
      • trace the path of current flow in a closed circuit
      • distinguish between a closed circuit and an open circuit (by interpreting circuit diagrams or by carrying out experiments)
  • recognise that
    • a battery provides energy in a closed circuit
    • current transports energy from the battery to the bulb
  • use a switch to break or close a circuit.
  • construct simple circuits from circuit diagrams.
    • Restrict components to batteries, wires, switches and bulbs.
    • Symbols representing circuit components can be used.
  • infer that components of an electrical system affect one another.
    • Pupils are to:
      • infer that the current affects the brightness of bulbs
      • investigate the effect of some variables on the current in a circuit. These variables to be investigated are:
        • number of batteries
        • number of bulbs
        • arrangement of batteries
  • identify electrical conductors and electrical insulators.
    • Examples: Conductors: metals Insulators: wood, plastic, rubber (Comparison of ability to conduct electric current within each group is not required).
  • infer that good conductors of electricity are generally good conductors of heat.
  • show an awareness of the need for proper use and handling of electricity.
    • Example: Touching switches with wet hands may cause nasty electrical shock.
  • show an awareness of the need to conserve electrical energy.
    • Briefly mention that the energy resources used to generate electricity come from fuels which are exhaustible. Topic is covered in depth at lower secondary level.
    • Pupils should be encouraged to demonstrate ways to conserve electrical energy in school and at home.
    • Pupils should gather, organise and interpret data on electrical energy use at home and in school.


  • show an understanding that water, light energy and carbon dioxide are needed for photosynthesis and sugar and oxygen are produced.
  • show an understanding that food produced by plants becomes the source of energy for animals.
  • recognise that respiration is a process in which energy is made available for life processes to occur.

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